Although social learning (the acquisition of specific behaviors by observing other individuals exhibiting those behaviors ) is well documented among fish, few studies have investigated social learning within a developmental context in these taxa. Rather than investigating the development of a particular skill, Chapman, Ward, and Krause investigated the role of group density during development in later foraging success in laboratory-housed guppies. When raised with a small number of conspecifics (members of the same species), guppies were quicker to locate food by following a trained adult guppy than were guppies raised in large groups. This counterintuitive finding is explained by the fact that guppies reared in the high-density condition were less likely to shoal (swim in a group ) with others and, therefore, were less likely to learn the benefits of social learning. Instead, fish reared in high-density situations may learn that conspecifics are to be viewed as competitors, rather than as potential sources of adaptive information. This finding suggests that at least for guppies, the early social environment may have an effect on the capacity for social learning, if not on the socially learned behaviors themselves.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. note a flaw in a scientific finding
B. describe a particular scientific study
C. present an interpretation of a finding
D. note a difference between two scientific findings
E. contrast two conditions in which a particular phenomenon has been observed
2. Regarding research on fish, it can be inferred from the passage that
A. research studies of the acquisition of important skills by fish have only recently begun to document the role of conspecifics in the learning process
B. research on social learning in guppies suggests that guppies differ in important ways from most other fish in the means by which they learn particular skills
C. research on social learning in fish has generally focused on the acquisition of skills other than foraging
D. research has established that social learning occurs in some fish species without
investigating the development context in which it occurs.
E. research to investigate social learning has been done more extensively on fish than on other aquatic animals.
3. Which of the following can be inferred about the study by Chapman, Ward, and Krause?
A. It was initially designed to investigate something other than social learning.
B. It required researchers to observe individual guppies at multiple points in their life spans.
C. It pointed to the possibility that population density may have little to do with guppies’ social learning.
D. It required the observation of guppies under conditions that closely mimicked the conditions of guppies in the wild.
E. It indicated that guppies gain adaptive information from being reared with a relatively large number of conspecifics.
1.B 2.D 3.D
Although some skeptics points to Arctic places such as the high latitudes of Greenland, where temperatures seem to have fallen, a recent scientific report concludes that in recent decades average temperatures have increased faster in the Arctic than elsewhere. Scientists have long suspected that several factors lead to greater temperature swings at Earths polar regions than elsewhere. First, most of the Arctic is covered in snow and ice, which are highly reflective; if snow and ice melt, the exposed soil, which absorbs heat, serves to accelerate warming. Second, the polar atmosphere is thin, so little energy is required to warm it. Third, less solar
energy is lost in evaporation at the frigid poles than in the tropics.
1. Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
The passage mentions which of the following as factors that might lead to large temperature swings in Earths polar regions?
A. the amount of energy lost due to evaporation at the poles
B. soil exposure due to melting snow
C. the relatively thin atmosphere at the poles
2. In pointing to the apparent temperature change in the high latitudes of Greenland, the skeptics mentioned in the passage intend to raise as a question whether
A. Greenland is less likely to experience extreme temperature changes than are other areas of the Arctic.
B. Those more localized temperature drops might indicate an important trend not captured by the upward trend of average Arctic temperatures.
C. There might be a reversal of the temperature trend in the high latitudes of Greenland.
D. The factors that cause temperature change in the high latitudes of Greenland are different from those that affect the rest of the Arctic.
E. Greenland has more ice and snow on the ground than do other areas of the Arctic.
As it was published in 1935, Mules and Men, Zora Neale Hurston's landmark collection of folktales, may not have been the book that its author first had in mind. In this anthropological study, Hurston describes in detail the people who tell the stories, often even inserting herself into the storytelling scene. Evidently, however, Hurston had prepared another version, a manuscript that was recently discovered and published after having been forgotten since 1929. This version differs from Mules and Men in that it simply records stories, with no descriptive or interpretive information.
While we cannot know for certain why Hurston’s original manuscript went unpublished during her lifetime, it may have been because publishers wanted something more than a transcription of tales. Contemporary novelist and critic John Edgar Wideman has described Black literature as the history of a writing that sought to escape its frame, in other words, as the effort of Black writers to present the stories of Black people without having to have a mediating voice to explain the stories to a non-Black audience. In this, Hurston may have been ahead of her time.
1. Select the sentence that suggests a possible reason why Hurston wrote the version of Mules and Men that was published in 1935.
2. The passage suggests that Hurston may have done which of the following in preparing her original version?
A. Discussed her mode of presentation with her publisher before writing the first draft, in order to reduce the possibility of misunderstanding.
B. Shortened her presentation of the stories to the bare minimum in order to be able to present more folklore material.
C. Put it aside for several decades in order to maximize its potential audience when it was published.
D. Reluctantly agreed to reshape it in order to take out various elements with which her publisher had been dissatisfied.
E. Chose not to include editorial commentary, in order to present the stories on their own terms.
1. While we cannot know for certain why Hurston’s original manuscript went unpublished during her lifetime, it may have been because publishers wanted something more than a transcription of tales.
Massive projectiles striking much larger bodies create various kinds of craters, including multi-ring basins–the largest geologic features observed on planets and moons. In such collisions, the impactor is completely destroyed and its material is incorporated into the larger body. Collison’s between bodies of comparable size, on the other hand, have very different consequences: one or both bodies might be entirely smashed, with mass from one or both the bodies redistributed among new objects formed from the fragments. Such a titanic collision between Earth and a Mars-size impactor may have given rise to Earth’s Moon.
The Earth-Moon system has always been perplexing. Earth is the only one of the inner planets with a large satellite, the orbit of which is neither in the equatorial plane of Earth nor in the plane in which the other planets lie. The Moon’s mean density is much lower than that of Earth but is about the same as that of Earth’s mantle. This similarity in density has long prompted speculation that the Moon split away from a rapidly rotating Earth, but this idea founders on two observations. In order to spin off the Moon, Earth would have had to rotate so fast that a
day would have lasted less than three hours. Science offers no plausible explanation of how it could have slowed to its current rotational rate from that speed. Moreover, the Moon’s composition, though similar to that of Earth’s mantle, is not a precise match. Theorizing a titanic collision eliminates postulating a too-rapidly spinning Earth and accounts for the Moon’s peculiar composition. In a titanic collision model, the bulk of the Moon would have formed from a combination of material from the impactor and Earth’s mantle. Most of the earthly component
would have been in the form of melted or vaporized matter. The difficulty in recondensing this vapor in Earth’s orbit, and its subsequent loss to the vacuum of outer space, might account for the observed absence in lunar rocks of certain readily vaporized compounds and elements.
Unusual features of some other planets might also be explained by such impacts. Mercury is known to have a high density in comparison with other rocky planets. A titanic impact could have stripped away a portion of its rocky mantle, leaving behind a metallic core whose density is out of proportion with the original ratio of rock to metal. A massive, glancing blow to Venus might have given it its anomalously slow spin and reversed direction of rotation. Such conjectures are tempting, but, since no early planet was immune to titanic impacts, they could be used indiscriminately to explain away in a cavalier fashion every unusual planetary characteristic; still, we may now be beginning to discern the true role of titanic impacts in planetary history.
1. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the collisions mentioned in the highlighted sentence?
A. They occur less frequently than do titanic collisions.
B. They occur between bodies of comparable size.
C. They occur primarily between planet-sized bodies.
D. They result in the complete destruction of the impacting body.
E. They result in mass being redistributed among newly formed objects.
2. The author of the passage asserts which of the following about titanic collision models?
A. Such models are conclusive with respect to certain anomalies within the solar system, but leave numerous other anomalies unexplained.
B. Such models are more likely than are earlier models to account for the formation of multiring basins.
C. Such models may be particularly useful in explaining what happens when the impacting bodies involved are of highly dissimilar mean densities.
D. Such models have been tested to such a degree that they are quickly reaching the point where they can be considered definitive.
E. Such models are so tempting that they run the risk of being used indiscriminately to explain unusual planetary features.
3. The passage suggests that which of the following is true of the cited compounds and elements?
A. They were created by reactions that took place during a titanic collision.
B. They were supplied by an impactor that collided with Earth.
C. They were once present on the Moon but were subsequently vaporized.
D. They are rarely found on planet-size bodies in our solar system.
E. They are present on Earth but not on the Moon.
4. In the second paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with
A. arguing in favor of a particular theory about the formation of the Earth-Moon system.
B. summarizing conventional theories about the formation of the earth-Moon system.
C. anticipating and responding to criticisms of a particular theory about the formation of the Earth-Moon system.
D. explaining why the Earth-Moon system is considered scientifically perplexing.
E. questioning an assumption underlying one theory about the formation of the Earth-Moon system.
1.D 2.E 3.E 4.A
The history of the transmission of ancient Roman texts prior to invention of the printing press is reconstructed from evidence both internal and external to the texts themselves. Internal evidence is used to reconstruct the relationship of the surviving manuscripts of a Roman text to one another, as represented in a modern stemma codicum: a diagram depicting the genealogical relationship of surviving manuscripts and those the stemmas editor believes existed at one time. Stemma are scholar’s only road maps to textual connections based on internal evidence, but they may paint a distorted picture of reality because they diagram the relationships of only those manuscripts known or inferred today. If surviving copies are few,
the stemma perforce brings into proximity manuscripts that were widely separated in time and place of origin. Conversely, the stemma can also bestow a semblance of separation on manuscripts written within a few months of one another or even in the same room.
One type of external evidence that may shed light on the transmission of Roman texts is the availability of a work in the Middle Ages, when many classical texts were circulated. Too often, though, too much is inferred about a particular works circulation in the Middle Ages from the number of manuscripts surviving today. When a work survives in a single manuscript copy, editors call the manuscript, rather glamorously, the lone survivor–implying that all its (presumably rare) companions were destroyed sometime early in the Middle Ages by pillaging
barbarians. It is equally possible that the work survived far into the Middle Ages in numerous copies in monastic libraries but were unnoticed due to lack of interest. The number of extant manuscripts, however few, really does not allow scholars to infer how many ancient Latin manuscripts of a work survived to the ninth, the twelfth, or even the fifteenth century.
Quotations from a Roman text by a medieval author are another category of external evidence: but does the appearance of a rare word or grammatical construction—or even a short passage —really indicate a medieval author’s firsthand knowledge of this or that ancient work, or does such usage instead derive from some intermediate source, such as a grammar book or a popular style manual? Medieval authors do quote extensively from ancient authors; while such
quotations provide some evidence of the works medieval circulation, as well as define its evolving fortunes and the various uses to which it was put, they may be far less useful in reconstructing the text of an ancient work.
Much as scholars want to look for overall patterns and formulate useful generalizations, the transmission of each text is a different story and each manuscripts history is unique. Scholars must be careful not to draw conclusions that go beyond what the evidence can support.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with which of the following?
A. tracing certain changes in the methods used to study the transmission of ancient Roman texts.
B. contrasting two types of evidence used in investigating the transmission of ancient Roman texts.
C. outlining certain difficulties associated with studying the transmission of ancient Roman texts.
D. advocating the use of one type of evidence about ancient Roman texts over the use of another type.
E. explaining the development and potential uses and drawbacks of stemma in the study of ancient Roman texts.
2. As described in the passage, a stemma is most closely analogous to which of the following?
A. a department store inventory list that excludes some departments
B. a map from which a large section has been torn off
C. a chronology that includes only major historical events
D. a family tree in which some generations are not recorded
E. a government organizational chart from which some agencies are omitted
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
3. In its discussion of external evidence, the passage suggests which of the following about manuscripts of ancient Roman texts during the Middle Ages?
A. It is possible that fewer manuscripts were destroyed by barbarians in the early Middle Ages than scholars frequently suppose.
B. Additional copies of some so-called lone survivor manuscripts may have existed well into the Middle Ages.
C. If an ancient Roman text is quoted in a work by a medieval author, then it is likely that at least one manuscript copy of that text survived into the Middle Ages.
4. Click on the sentence in the first paragraph that suggests that scholars might be led to underestimate the extent of the connection between certain manuscripts.
1.C 2.D 3.AB
4. Conversely, the stemma can also bestow a semblance of separation on manuscripts written within a few months of one another or even in the same room.
This passage is adapted from material published in 1993
The recent recognition of a link between increasing rates of deforestation and increasing global climatic warming has focused new attention on the ecological role of forests. Deforestation threatens the continued existence of forests, and their loss would lead to an immediate, irreversible destabilization of the climate because the destruction of forests contributes to increased atmospheric concentrations of such heat-trapping gases as carbon dioxide and therefore to the acceleration of global warming.
The world is at present accumulating carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from two well-known sources the combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation. Deforestation results in higher levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere because the carbon stored in plants and trees is released when trees decay or are burned. A third sources, the warming-enhanced decay of organic matter in forests and soils, especially in the middle and higher latitudes, is now being recognized as potentially significant. Evidence is accumulating that carbon from this source is beginning to have global effects. Thus, two of the three sources of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere are directly related to the survival and health of forests.
In the discussion about the importance of forests, however, emphasize has fallen on biodiversity, or numbers of species per unit area, especially in the tropics, where such diversity is particularly high. But forests, it should be emphasized, have a similar role in every latitude they contain the largest numbers of different kinds of plants and animals of any community on land and might be considered the most highly developed of the terrestrial communities from the standpoint of complexity of structure and diversity of life and life forms. Forests are far more than simple collections of species, however, it is unfortunate that the discussion of biotic
or living resources has been focused on biodiversity rather than on the actual ability of the land itself to support life. In order for the complete range of plant and animal life to thrive, the soil must contain essential nutrients in their proper quantities and proportions, and the atmosphere must be composed of the correct molecules in their proper proportions. If the soils were to become infertile and the atmosphere inhospitable, more than mere diversity or numbers of species would be lost, the land would become impoverished and no longer be able to support any life.
Deforestation almost invariably speeds up the loss of nutrients into watercourses. It also, as previously explained, involves a release of carbon into the atmosphere. Forests thus play aclear and critical role in helping to protect the capacity of the land to support life by increasing the retention of nutrients and in helping to stabilize the atmosphere by storing carbon.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing the
A. importance of forests for protection the land and atmosphere
B. role of forests in the tropics versus that in the higher latitudes.
C. process of deforestation in the tropics
D. need for forests to ensure the preservation of biodiversity
E. negative effects of recent global climatic changes in forests.
2. According to the passage, the emphasis on preserving biodiversity in forests has had which of the following effects?
A. diverted attention from the importance of the land’s ability to support life.
B. led to recognition of the causes complexity of terrestrial communities.
C. led to an understanding of the causes of accelerated rates of global warming.
D. resulted in the formulation of the concept of biotic resources.
E. shifted attention away from the role of forests in stopping the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
3. The passage suggests that the emphasis on a forests biodiversity has had which of the following unfortunate consequences?
A. It has fostered the view that forests have a similar role in every climate.
B. It has fostered the view that deforestation almost invariably speeds erosion
C. It has fostered resistance to preserving any forests but tropical ones.
D. It has led to an increase in the rate at which the land is becoming impoverished
E. It has led to an underestimation of the importance of some forests
4. The primary purpose of the third paragraph of the passage is to
A. explain how the land supports life
B. explain what happens when soil becomes infertile
C. explain why a certain development in the discussion of forests is regrettable
D. show that forests are far more than simple collections species
E. argue that forests with a small number of species are more important to the support of than forests with many species
1.A 2.A 3.E 4.C
The male lion’s mane consists of hair of varying length and color, covering, to varying degrees, the head, neck, shoulders, and chest. Schaller suggested that the mane protects the area of the body “towards which most social contact is directed” by absorbing blows and bites. Darker mane hairs are thicker than lighter hairs, so darker manes may provide better protection. These ideas suggest that males with longer and darker manes will be wounded less frequently and/or with less severity on the area covered by the mane, but direct tests of this prediction
are difficult. Individual males are seldom seen daily, and the mane itself obscures many wounds beneath it from view. Furthermore, even in the best studied population, serious fights between lions are rarely observed.
1. Which of the following best describe the function of the highlighted portion of the passage?
A. to summarize the results of an experiment
B. to provide evidence on which a particular prediction is offered
C. to offer a counterexample that undermines a propelled explanation
D. to identify a phenomenon that Schaller found difficult to explain
E. to explain the variation among individual lo manes
2. The passage mentions which of the following as an obstacle to verify the “prediction” mentioned in the passage?
A. Wounds to the mane area are often difficult to observe.
B. Only a few lion populations have been well studied.
C. The severity of fights between lions is difficult to determine.
D. Individual males seldom have strong distinguishing characteristics.
E. Researchers have relatively few opportunities to observe lion populations directly.
A primary value in early twentieth-century Modernist architectural theory was that of “truth to materials”, that is, it was essential that a building’s design express the “natural” character of the building materials. This emphasis would have puzzled the architects of the Italian Renaissance (sixteenth century), a period widely regarded as the apex of architectural achievement, for Renaissance architects’ designs were determined only minimally by the materials employed. The diversity of Italy’s natural resources provided Renaissance architects with a wide variety of building materials. The builders of the Pitti Palace (1558-1570) used great blocks of Tuscan stone, just as Etruscans living in the same part of Italy had done some twenty centuries earlier. Had the Florentine Renaissance builders aped the Etruscan style, it might be said that their materials determined their style, since Etruscan style matched the massive, stark, solid character of the stone. But these same materials, which so suited the massive Etruscan style, were effectively used by the Florentine Renaissance to create the most delicate and graceful of styles.
A similar example of identical materials used in contrasting styles characterizes the treatment of Roman travertine marble. When Baroque architects of seventeenth-century Rome desired a massive and solid monumental effect, they turned to travertine marble, whose “natural effect” is, indeed, that of spacious breadth and lofty, smoothly rounded surfaces. Yet during the Renaissance, this same material had been used against its “nature,” in the Florentine tradition of sharply carved detail. Italian Renaissance architecture was shaped less by the “nature” of the materials at hand than by the artistic milieu of Renaissance Italy, which included painting and sculpture as well as architecture. While Roman travertine marble may have lent itself to fine carving, the Florentine passion for fine detail is no less marked in Florentine Renaissance painting than in Florentine Renaissance architecture. Similarly, in the next century, the emphasis on shading and corporeal density in Baroque painting mirrored the use of Roman travertine marble in Baroque architecture to create broad shadow and powerful masses.
The ingenuity of Renaissance architects extended beyond merely using a material in a way not suggested by its outward natural appearance. If they conceived a design that called for a certain material either too expensive or difficult to work with, they made no scruple about imitating that material. Their marbles and their stones are often actually painted stucco. When the blocks of masonry with which they built were not in scale with the projected scheme, the real joints were concealed and false ones introduced. Nor were these practices confined, as some scholars insist, to the later and supposedly decadent phases of the art. Material, then, was utterly subservient to style.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. explaining the differences in quality among different kinds of building materials
B. discussing the differences among Etruscan, Florentine Renaissance, and Roman Baroque architecture
C. describing how different materials influenced architecture in different cities
D. describing the manner in which Renaissance architects often resorted to artificial materials and illusionistic effects
E. demonstrating the attitude of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Italian architects toward the use of building materials
2. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that which of the following is true of painting and architecture of the Baroque era?
A. Both emphasize the “natural” use of materials.
B. Both are derived from the Florentine Renaissance style.
C. Both have been overlooked by twentieth-century Modernists.
D. They have certain visual features in common.
E. They illustrate the degeneration of a style.
3. The author’s mention of Florentine Renaissance painting serves in the context of the passage to support which of the following assertions?
A. The constraints that operate in architecture are different from those that operate in painting
B. Florentine architectural style was not determined by the nature of the available marble.
C. The Florentine Renaissance period was a period in which the other arts achieved the same distinction as did architecture.
D. Technical advances in all of the arts of the Florentine Renaissance determined the stylistic qualities of those arts.
E. Native preferences of style do not manifest themselves in the same ways in different arts.
4. The passage suggests which of the following about the cited “scholars”?
A. They believe that a decadent phase is characteristic of any significant artistic movement.
B. They reject the popular view of the Renaissance as the apex of architectural achievement.
C. They believe that a vigorous and healthy architecture would not usually employ false surfaces or imitation building materials.
D. They represent the mainstream in critical and historical thought about the Florentine Renaissance.
E. They have focused on such technical matters as the cost of building materials rather than on artistic concerns.
1.E 2.D 3.C 4.C
Astronomers have had difficulty accounting for certain planets discovered outside our solar system. They are called hot Jupiters because each is similar in mass to Jupiter, the largest solar-system planet, but orbits its parent star at a fraction of the distance at which Earth, let alone Jupiter, orbits the Sun. In the standard, solar-system-based theory of planetary formation, such as a massive planet could not form so close to a star. So most attempts to explain a hot Jupiter’s existence envision it forming farther away, then migrating inward. According to one hypothesis, the planet’s gravitational field tugs on the protoplanetary disk of
dust and gas from which it formed. The disk exerts its own gravitational tug, and this interplay of forces robs the planet of momentum in its orbital path, forcing it to spiral in toward the star. According to another hypothesis, the planet’s gravitational field is so strong that it creates a groove in the disk, partitioning it into inner and outer regions; the resulting gravitational interactions between the planet and these regions cause the planet to lose orbital momentum and spiral inward. Another question remains: what prevents the planet from continuing its spiral until it collides with the star?
1. The author of the passage mentions “Earth” primarily in order to
A.stress the massive size of a hot Jupiter
B.emphasize the proximity of a hot Jupiter to its parent star
C.imply that hot Jupiters are unlikely to harbor extraterrestrial life
D.point out differences between Earth and Jupiter with regard to their orbital distance from the Sun
E. illustrate how hot Jupiters might fit into the standard theory of planetary formation
2. Which of the following elements is part of one but not both of the hypotheses discussed in the passage?
A. an interplay of gravitational forces
B. a loss of orbital momentum
C. a protoplanetary disk composed of dust and gas
D. a protoplanetary disk divided into two regions.
3. It can be inferred from the passage that the “attempts” share which of the following goals?
A. to explain how a Jupiter-sized planet could form so close to its parent star.
B. to explain what prevents a hot Jupiter from colliding with its parent star.
C. to determine whether a hot Jupiter is formed from a protoplanetary disk of dust and gas.
D. to determine whether a hot Jupiter’s gravitational field is strong enough to create a groove in its protoplantary disk
E. to account for hot Jupiters in a way that is not inconsistent with the standard theory of planetary formation.
1.B 2.D 3.E
Editors of major United States newsmagazines have been criticized for reducing the amount of space these magazines devote to international news. According to these editors, however, readers are wholly to blame for the reductions. After all, the editors point out, sales of magazine issues that prominently feature international news stories have declined significantly, and declining sales reflect declining reader interest. Yet even if true, this evidence does not refute the contention that editors are merely passive instruments responding to reader interest. And that is clearly an untenable view, since editors can often intensify reader interest in a news topic by giving it frequent coverage.
In the argument as a whole, the two highlighted portions play which of the following roles?
A. The first is evidence that has been used to support a position that the argument opposes; the second is a point that the argument raises to cast doubt on the reasoning used to support that position.
B. The first presents a claim, the truth of which is evaluated in the argument; the second is information introduced to cast doubt on that claim.
C. The first presents a claim, the truth of which is evaluated in the argument; the second provides evidence in support of that claim.
D. The first cites evidence in support of the main conclusion of the argument; the second states that conclusion.
E. The first states an assumption that is explicitly made to support the main conclusion of the argument; the second is a position that the argument as a whole opposes.
Buell’s study of village sketches (a type of fiction popular in the United States in the 1830s and 1840s) provides a valuable summary of sketches that portray the community as homogeneous and fixed, but it ignores those by women writers, which typically depicted the diversity that increasingly characterized actual village communities at that time. These women’s geographical mobility was restricted (although women writers of the time were not uniformly circumscribed in this way), and their subject matter reflected this fact. Yet their texts were enriched by what Gilligan, writing in a different context, has called the ability to attend to voices other than one’s own. To varying degrees, the women’s sketches portray differences
among community members: all stress differences among men and among women
(particularly the latter) as well as differences between the sexes, and some also depict cultural diversity. These writers represent community as dynamic, as something that must be negotiated and renegotiated because of its members’ divergent histories, positions, expectations, and beliefs.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
1. According to the passage, village sketches written by women in the United States in the 1830s and 1840s typically reflected
A. the negotiations that characterized trade relationships between villages
B. the fact that these women did not often travel very far beyond their own village
C. the plurality of experiences and ideas that existed among the residents of a village
2. Select the sentence in the passage that contrasts how men and women depicted life in village communities.
3. The passage indicates that when Gilligan spoke of “the ability to attend to voices other than one’s own,” she
A. did not consider that ability to be a desirable psychological characteristic
B. did not believe that individuals differ greatly with respect to that ability
C. was implying that that ability enhances a sense of belonging in communities
D. was assuming that good writers are able to depict diverse characters
E. was not discussing the women who wrote village sketches
2. Buell’ study of village sketches (a type of fiction popular in the United States in the 1830s and 1840s) provides a valuable summary of sketches that portray the community as homogeneous and fixed, but it ignores those by women writers, which typically depicted the diversity that increasingly characterized actual village communities at that time.
By far the most popular United States literature of its time was a body of now-neglected novels written between 1820 and 1870 by, for, and about women. According to Nina Baym, who has termed this genre “woman’s fiction,” the massive popularity of these novels claimed a place for women in the writing profession. The novels chronicle the experiences of women who, beset with hardships, find within themselves qualities of intelligence, will, resourcefulness, and courage sufficient to overcome their obstacles. According to Baym, the genre began with Catharine Sedgwick’s New-England Tale (1822), manifested itself as the best-selling reading matter of the American public in the unprecedented sales of Susan Warner’s Wide, Wide World (1850), and remained a dominant fictional type until after 1870. The critical, as opposed to popular, reception of these novels in their own time was mixed. Theoretical opposition by those who saw fiction as a demoralizing and corrupting influence was by no means dead in mid-nineteenth-century America, and popular successes naturally bore a significant proportion of the attack. The moralistic tone of much woman’s fiction did not placate these antagonists; on the contrary, many clerical opponents of the novel thought that women were trying to take over the clergy’s functions and hence attacked all the more fiercely. Similarly, some male authors, disgruntled by the emergence of great numbers of women writers, expressed contempt for the genre.
On the other hand, the women had a powerful ally—their publishers, who not only put these works into print but advertised them widely and enthusiastically. Some few reviewers wrote about these works with attention and respect, distinguishing between the works of the different authors and identifying individual strengths and weaknesses. These approving contemporary critics were particularly alert to each writer’s contribution to the depiction of American social life, especially to regional differences in manners and character types. On the whole, however, even these laudatory critics showed themselves uninterested in the stories that this fiction told, or in their significance.
Baym acknowledges that these novels are telling—with variations--a single familiar tale, and correctly notes that this apparent lack of artistic innovation has been partly responsible for their authors’ exclusion from the canon of classic American writers traditionally studied in university literature courses. Baym points out, however, that unlike such male contemporaries as Nathaniel Hawthorne, these women did not conceive of themselves as “artists,” but rather as professional writers with work to do and a living to be made from fulfilling an obligation to their audience. This obligation included both entertainment and instruction, which are not, says Baym, at odds with one another in these books, nor is entertainment the sweet coating on a didactic pill. Rather, the lesson itself is an entertainment: the central character’s triumph over adversity is profoundly pleasurable to those readers who identify with her.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. summarizing the major contributions of two influential writers
B. describing and commenting on a group of literary works
C. summarizing the major events of a period of literary history
D. contrasting two types of literary works from the same era
E. arguing for the adopting of several neglected literary works into university curriculums
2. The author of the passage cites Susan Warner’s Wide, Wide World most probably as an example of a woman’s novel that
A. had more advanced artistic elements than many of its type
B. attracted an excessive amount of critical attention
C. was found to be inappropriately moralistic by many members of the clergy
D. was significant as an indicator of the genre’s popularity
E. signaled the gradual decline of the size of the genre’s audience
3. The author of the passage implies which of the following about the members of the clergy mentioned in the first paragraph?
A. They also opposed works of fiction that were outside the genre of woman’s fiction.
B. They opposed journalism as well as imaginative writing.
C. Their influence reached its pinnacle in the mid-nineteenth century.
D. They were unable to obtain the support of other critics for their views.
E. Their attacks on the genre of the novel did not extend to novels written by male writers.
4. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning the majority of the nineteenth-century reviewers of woman’s fiction?
A. They considered the position taken by the clergy in regard to woman’s fiction self-serving.
B. They did not make fine distinctions between different authors.
C. They placed a higher value on plot than on social significance.
D. They subscribed to the view of writers as purveyors of popular entertainment rather than as artists
E. They regarded woman’s fiction as high as publishers did
1.B 2.D 3.D 4.B